Audiences and Institutions

UK film council- (Low budget film industry)

  • Set up by the Labour government as a non-departmental public body in 2000
  • The purpose was to develop and promote the British film industry, along with BBC films and Film4 the film council was the main port of call for film makers trying to get feature films off the ground, especially if those films are outside the mainstream or ‘specialised’
  • The council recieved around £15 million funding per year
  • Through its National Lottery it channelled about £160 million inot more than 900 films over the last 10 years, this includes films such as Bend It Like Beckham and This is England
  • The UK Film Council closed in April 2011
  • The BFI (British Film Institute) has taken over key roles such as distribution of Lottery funding, exhibition through prints and Advertising fund; certification of UK films, research and statistics.
  • The BFI increased the Lottery fund by 20% from £15 million to £18 million in 2011/2012

Screening British films Nationwide – Studios are selective about where and when they release their films.

  • Looking for Eric is a good example of different wats of marketing in different localities and for audiences.

Digital is the Future

  • The digitalisation of film makes it cheaper to produce, distribute and exhibt
  • Independent film makers can produce larger numbers of prints at smaller cost, thereforre they will not lose as much money if the film does not attract such a large audience in the cinemas

Representation of Social Class

What is Social Class?

A group of people within a society that possess the same economic status, often determined by occupation, education, income and manners.

What is Status?

The position of an individual in relation to another or others, especially in regaard to social or professional standing.

What are the new classes?





Film Industry

What am i supposed to know for Section B?

  • Production
  • Distribution
  • Marketing
  • Exhibition

Skyfall (2012) Mainstrean         Vs        Shifty (2007) British Independent


Product placement:

  • Tom Ford tailored suits
  • Sony Vaio hardware (laptops)
  • Heineken beer (£28 million for taking a sip in the film)

Off screen marketing:

  • Perfume retailers
  • Coke zero
  • Visit Britain
  • Olympic games (2012)
  • First James Bond film to be screened in IMAX venues – made $3.5 million in 79 locations
  • 50th anniversary of the James Bond series

Budget of film = £150 million however only £93 million was spent, 1/3 of this was covered by the Heineken product placement

Hollywood vs British Indie

  • Hollywood is the dominant industry – British industry doesn’t have the money to compete.
  • Since digitalisation of cameras and projectors, British cinema can operate in a more cost effective way and target national audiences.
  • Microwave scheme allow micro budget British films that tell British stories, such as Shifty, to be made.
  • Cinemas only make money from the extras such as popcorn, drinks and snacks.



Representation of Age

Stereotypes of teenagers:


  • Aggressive (Negative)
  • Rude (Negative)
  • Lazy (Negative)


  • Moody (Negative)
  • Dumb (Negative)
  • Self- centered (Negative)

Stereotypes of the elderly:

  • Dependent on others (problematic)
  • Wealthy (problematic)
  • Lonely (negative)
  • Good stories/ memories (positives)
  • Caring (positives)

Children- Innocent, pure and naive ( Malcolm in the middle)

Teenagers- Moody, hate authority and lazy (Pretty little liars – Noel Kahn)

20’s and 30’s – Glamourous, fun, parties and making money ( The Musketeers)

Middle Aged- Unattractive, uncool, boring and being past it (Breaking bad)

Elderly- Slow, weak, powerless and dependent ( Eastenders – Dot)

Key Terms:

Representations which are the same as the the dominant representation REINFORCE the stereotype.

Representations which are different from the dominant representation CHALLENGE the stereotype.

Ideologies of teenagers:

  • Trouble – Delinquent
  • Fun – Respectable

The Film Industry

Hollywood blockbuster summary-

highest film budget= Avatar, $237 million

(Titianic was the first blockbuster movie to have a $2oo million budget)

(Jaws was the first blockbuster movie)

Blockbuster- sell out

12/14 films that i have looked at are either part of a franchise, sequel or prequel.

Production- the people who make the film

Distribution- the middle man, the people who buys the rights to the film and who decides how many copies of the film are made.

Exhibition- the screen, how the film reaches the audience/ public





Representation of Ethnicity

Characters from TV/film that portray different ethinic groups-

  • Death in Paradise- Dwayne
  • Skyfall- All villians are European
  • The simpsons – Apu
  • Token- Southpark
  • Slumdog millionaire
  • Modern family – Asian baby
  • Eastenders- Patrick

What is the difference between Ethnicity and Race?

Ethnicity- referes where you come from, your cultural identity.

Race- defined by where you descend from a common ancestor giving you a clear set of racial characteristics e.g your hair colour, hair colour and facial features.

How did people from other cultures get portrayed in the British media?

Often ‘foreignness’ was emphasised and laughed at.

Non – Polictical correctness = Faulty Towers

Representation in the 1970’s:

‘Love Thy Neighbour’ and ‘Til Death Do Us Part’delt with the issue of immigration.

In the media today… Evidence suggests that despite some progress, ethnic minorities are generally under-represented or are represented in stereotyped and negative ways across a range of media content.

Stereotypes of black culture-

  • Violent
  • Gun crime
  • Athletic – Usian Bolt & Mo Farah
  • Drugs
  • Comedic- Eddie Murphy & Kevin Hart

Alvarado’s Theory ( 1987)

In his study, Alvarado identifed the following sterotypes:

  • Exotic
  • Dangerous
  • Humorous
  • Pitied

Media portrays an ethinc stereotype – This audience encounter this ethinicity mainly through media – What will happen to the audience’s view of ethincity?






Disability in TV drama

Examples –

  • South Park
  • Eastenders – Donna
  • Glee – Artie
  • I am Sam
  • Pretty little liars – Jenna
  • Forest Gump
  • Cast Offs
  • Emmerdale – Lizzie
  • Tommy from Coming Down the Mountain

Stereotypical characters-

  • Physically disabled/disfigured – often shown as outsiders and unable to do normal things
  • Mentally disabled – often shown as strange, odd, childlike and outsiders
  • Able bodies/ minded – often shown as ‘normal’ and ‘ideal’

Movie villians with a disability or deformity-

  • The joker – Dark Knight
  • Voldemort – Harry Potter
  • Bucky Barns- Captain America
  • Dr Connors – The Amazing Spiderman
  • The X-Men
  • Deadpool – Cancer/ physical disfiguration
  • Little mermaid
  • Snow white
  • Beauty and the beast
  • The Elephant man

Although our association of diability with ‘evil’ has started to decline, society often still links disability to weakness and makes disabled characters objects to pity.

Paul Hunt’s theory-

In his 1991 study Hunt suggests that there are 10 commonly used stereotypes of disabled people in the media:

  • Pitiable or pathetic – most common stereotype, shown to be deserving of pity when faced with difficulty, charity appeals have often used this representation and TV dramas still use it as a shortcut.
  • Object of curiosity or violence
  • Sinister or evil
  • The super cripple
  • As atmosphere (in the background, irrelevent to the story)
  • Laughable
  • His/her own worst enemy
  • Burden
  • Non-sexual
  • Unable to participate in daily life



Representation of sexuality

Shows featuring characters of different sexualities on TV?

  • Modern Family
  • Orange is the new black
  • The Office
  • Pretty little liars
  • Glee
  • 90210
  • Coronation Street

Sexuality Vs Gender

  • Gender and sexuality are not the same thing
  • focus on ALL aspects of sexuality (heterosexuality, homosexuality, metro sexuality and bisexuality)

Metro sexuality- A heterosexual man but they like to take care of their appearance.

Gender- The state of being male or female, in the context of social and culutral differences rather than biological ones)

Sexuality- The sexual feelings or behaviour of a particular person

Heteronormativity- stereotypically normal in the media

Stereotyping Sexuality

Gay men- camp, funny, outrageous, sleep around and very attractive

Lesbina women- butch, manly, blunt and men haters

Despite changing equality laws and a wider acceptance of different sexualities within much of society, TV has always remained quite conservative as they are scared of offending their viewers.

Gay and lesbian characters are often marginalised and seen as supporting characters, It is sometimes difficult for the characters to grow and develop.


A common meida representation is to associate gay characters with feminine characteristics and lesbinas with masucline characteristics. However, society has developed and times have changed, so has the representation of sexuality in TV dramas.

Sexual identites

The metero sexual – A man who displays behaviour stereotypically associated with homosexual men however they are heterosexual, they are concerened with their own appearances.

The feminine gay- Most common within the TV drama, has come under critisism becuase its a limiting stereotype.

The repressed homosexual- Fears of coming out to his fmaily, displays some sterotypical acts of gay behaviour suhc as dancing in a theatrical way.

The colourful gay man- some feminine qualitites, best friends with women and like to talk about fashion.

The butch lesbian- masculine dress, masculine behaviour and the man in the relationship.

Feminine lesbian- concerned with feelings and love over sex and dress feminine.


Representation of Gender

Gender theories

John Berger- Men Act Women Appear

  • Men are the controllers of the gaze, the women are the objects of the gaze.
  • Men look at women, women watch themselves being looked at
  • The ideal spectactor, is assumed to be male and the image of the women i designed to flatter him.
  • This determines the relationship between men and women, and the expectations women have of themselves.

Gaze- staring, peeping tom, looking at, voyeur(voyeurism)

  • objectifing women sexually for a hetero- male audience
  • by male producers for a male audience

Jeremy Tunstall’s 4 character role models for women

  • Domestic
  • Consumer
  • Sexual
  • Marital

Connell’s 4 categories of masculinity

  • Hegemonic (traditional)
  • Marginal (different race/ethinicity/disabled)
  • Complicit (tradtional/new man)
  • Subordinate (transgender/camp/homosexual)

Earp and Katz – Masculinity and violence

  • study the relationship between males and violence in the media
  • They claim that the media is responsible for  a steady stream of images that define ‘manhood’ as connected with violence, dominance and control- and create it as a normal and accepted part of masculintiy.

Represntation of gender in the Walking Dead clip

What is being represented?d

Men and women

How is it being represented?

Women are for domestic purposes(washing the clothes), the man is watching her. Ed uses violence to dominate women(traditional)… until shane uses violence to defend the women he is a tradtional/new man who fits into the complicit category.

Ed- hegemonic(some elements of complicit)

Shane- hegemonic(some elements of complict)

There is no subordinate or marginal characters-heteronormativity




Representation of gender

The Bechdel Test- for a film to pass it must

  • Have at least 2 female characters
  • Who talk to eachother
  • About something other than a man

In 2013 the films that failed meant that the US box office gross was $2.66B, the films that passed meant that the US box office gross was $4.22B.

The Swedish Film Rating Board impliment The Bechdel Test for every film they rate, every film that fails The Bechdel Test gets a high age rating for example a 15 or 18.

What is gender?

  • Your sex, whether you are male or female, is biologically determined.
  • Gender is not biological but refers to a socially constructed set of behaviour patterns.
  • Femininty and Masulinity- is a matter of choice, they refer to characteristics and behaviour patters.

Gender Lables


  • Submissive
  • cooking
  • domesticated
  • sensitive
  • emotional
  • petite
  • independent
  • professional – Theresa May// Karen Brady


  • strength
  • sports- rugby/football
  • pubs
  • DIY
  • Violence
  • blue
  • competitive
  • rational
  • professional – Donald Trump//Alan Sugar

Clip of Miss Representation Trailer 2011

  • 51% of America’s population is women
  • 17% of women are in politics
  • The media is sending a dangerous message to young people- violent or demeaning images
  • Women may not achieve parity for 500 years
  • Less women work in the media e.g Disney- 90% of the CEO’s are men

Inspiring the future- redraw the balance

  • Gender sterotypes are defined between the ages of 5 and 7
  • 61 pictures were drawn as men and 5 were drawn as women

This video suggests that most gender roles in society are dominated by men, if the job is deemed physically challenging and not domesticated it is not meant for women limiting their potential in life.

Traditional ideologies and Gender

Traditionally men have held power in our society- this system where men have power and control society in called PATRIARCHY.

Gender on TV

  • Gender identity refers to whether the characters are men or women. It could also include transgender, transvetite and androgynous characters.
  • There are several gender sterotypes widely seen on television.

Male sterotypes-

  • Traditional masculine man
  • New man
  • Gay man

Female sterotypes-

  • Traditional feminine woman
  • Sexy woman
  • Lesbian woman

Representation of Gender in The Walking Dead-

  • Shane = traditional masculine man// Rick = New man
  • Traditional- the character is talking about women being scared of the dark, having to be the protector.
  • New man- Talking about sharing feelings about his relationship, trys to talk to his partner… cares about what his partner said in front of his child.